Medieval Thought

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Medieval Modal Logic & Science: Augustine on Scientific

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It is very hard, if not impossible, to say who the first philosophers were or when informal philosophizing first occurred. He rejected the theory that matter is the principle of individuation on the grounds that this attribution leaves the individual lacking in total intelligibility and even makes problematic the possibility of an omniscient being's (God's) radical understanding of the individual object.

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The Medieval Paradigm: Religious Thought and Philosophy

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We will also discuss how the construction of a theory of knowledge ought to relate to the construction of a metaphysical theory—roughly speaking, what comes first, epistemology or metaphysics? (B) Note(s): Students should register via discussion section. However, Socrates set in motion a new approach by focusing entirely on moral and psychological questions. Medieval natural rights foreshadow teachers, students and alumni of the urban schools, which in the early thirteenth century began to form universities.

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Antipolemus: or, the plea of reason, religion, and humanity,

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Like Plato and Plotinus, but unlike the Manichaeans, Augustine now argued that evil is not anything real, but rather is merely the absence of good. Testament is the same God as the God of the New Testament. It was during this time that Hebrew became the language of Jewish philosophical works and the Jews began to foster their own general culture. In 1210, a provincial synod at Paris ruled that Aristotle's “natural theology” could not be “read” in the faculty of arts at Paris.

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The Process of Government; a Study of Social Pressures

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For this, Empiricism often cites the concept of tabula rasa, where individuals are not born with mental content and that knowledge builds from experience or perception. In a different vein, he cites aspects of the doctrine of emanation to explain the creation of the world, insisting, however, that emanation occurs not by necessity but by the free will of God. The second section is composed of alphabetically arranged entries on 138 philosophically significant authors – European, Jewish, and Arabic – living between the fourth and fifteenth centuries.

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Thomas Aquinas on Human Nature: A Philosophical Study of

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Therefore it is contradictory to hold that God exists only in the intellect, for then the being than which none greater can be conceived is one than which a greater can be conceived—namely, one that exists both in reality and in the understanding. Sometimes we understand by nature the established course of things, as when we say that nature makes the night succeed the day, nature hath made respiration necessary to the life of men.

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A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, Vol. 3

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ItisdefinedpartlybytheprocessofrediscoveringtheancientculturedevelopedinGreeceandRomeintheclassicalperiod, andpartlybytheneedtoaddresstheologicalproblemsandtointegratesacreddoctrinewithsecularlearning. The modern period in Western philosophy began, perhaps, with the Enlightenment, that period in which people began questioning and seeking in new ways in a number of fields. Hence, the Guide is devoted in part to the philosophic interpretation of the Bible, but beyond that, to revealing the inner, i.e., philosophic, meaning of the Torah – as Maimonides puts it, to "the science of the Law in its true sense," or to the "secrets of the Law."

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The Protean Ratio: Notio verbi rationis ab Ioanne Scotto

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I have taught graduate courses on Aristotle, Ancient and Medieval Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy and Religion in the Middle Ages, Arabic/Islamic Philosophy, Thomas Aquinas and more. He was a conservative theologian despite his enthusiasm for the scientific method and experimentation. b. Luther, Martin. [1915] Works of Martin Luther. What is Hobbes�s view of the state of nature, and what is needed to reach a state of peace?

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The Guide of the Perplexed, Vol. 1

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Commentarius in De Universalibus Iohannis Wyclif (ed. Gutas, Dimitri, Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna’s Philosophical Works, 2nd Revised and Enlarged Edition, Including an Inventory of Avicenna’s Authentic Works (Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Science 89). Quine was having a major influence, with such classics as Two Dogmas of Empiricism. Others are theological works that employ philosophical reasoning either (a) to explain revealed truth and make it comprehensible to non-believers, (b) to demonstrate that revealed and rational truth are not in conflict, or (c) to understand the circumstances in which revealed truth is to be applied.

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A Companion to Albert the Great: Theology, Philosophy, and

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Samuel was angry with Saul when the army let some animals live; for that sin, God deprived Saul of the kingdom (1 Kings 15). The study of philosophy prepares students for careers in a variety of fields, including Let us know and we'll get back to you as soon as we can. Although the artificialization of natural language for the expression of technical truths beyond the capacity of natural language proceeded apace from the time of Anselm, the final major philosophical reaction, brought about by communication difficulties, was in the opposite direction.

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A History of Philosophy in Epitome

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To the ultimate good of the Stoics, that is, virtue practiced for its own sake, Valla opposed that of the Epicureans, represented by pleasure, on the grounds that pleasure comes closer to Christian happiness, which is superior to either pagan ideal. Although an infinite universe was by no means his invention, he was the first to locate a heliocentric system in infinite space. Defend or refute one of the arguments for God presented by Anselm or Aquinas. 5. Between the end of the Patristic era in the fifth century and the beginning of the Scholastic era in the ninth there intervene a number of intercalary thinkers, as they may be called, like Claudianus Mamertus, Boethius, Cassiodorus, St.