A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics by Alan Cruse

By Alan Cruse

This easy-to-use advisor illuminates key innovations and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the research of which means because it is conveyed via language.

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They belong to substitution sets whose membership is effectively fixed, with change occurring only over a long time-scale (typically longer than the lifetime of a single speaker). 793 02 pages 001-202 26 31/3/06 10:19 Page 26 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS 3. Their main function is to articulate the grammatical structure of a sentence, and while most of them can be said to carry meaning, their meanings are typically basic and very general (see under grammatical meaning). ) cognitive linguistics An approach to the study of language structure and linguistic behaviour that has developed mainly since the 1980s.

A slight pause may signal a ‘transition-relevance place’, where the turn is offered to another participant. A speaker may start to say something, then change their mind about what to say; this is known as a ‘repair’. , which are not intended to interrupt the speaker’s flow, nor to take over the turn. Conversations are structured in a number of ways. g. g. ). Some turns form natural pairs, known as ‘adjacency pairs’. Examples of these are question and answer, greeting and response greeting, invitation and acceptance or refusal, and apology and acceptance or rejection.

Take the word dog. This word can be used to refer to certain things but not others. The set of things the word properly applies to is known as its ‘extension’, in this case, the set of all dogs (the term ‘denotation’ is sometimes restricted to this). However, the word also denotes the property or properties something has to have in order to count as a dog (we can think of this as the concept dog); this is called the ‘intension’ of the word (also sometimes called connotation). ) 793 02 pages 001-202 46 31/3/06 10:19 Page 46 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS deontic modality see under modality de re vs de dicto interpretations An utterance like The prize cheque will be presented to the winner by the president of the company has two interpretations corresponding to two readings of the phrase the president of the company.

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