By Sierpinski W.

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Gell-Mann (Quark model) G. Zweig V. Fitch CP violation BNL/AGS P. Higgs N. Samios et al. (Higgs mechanism) Ω BNL/AGS S. Glashow (Electro-weak uniﬁcation) J. Cronin " " 1961–1968 S. Weinberg A. I. W. E. Taylor 1971 G. G. Veltman 1972–1980 (Renormalization of EW theory) Neutrino experiments Fermilab/PS CERN/SPS 1973 M. Kobayashi (KM model on CP) T. D. J. Gross (Asymptotic freedom and QCD) F. Wilczek A. Lagarrigue et al. C. Ting J/ψ (charm quark) BNL/AGS Charm spectroscopy SPEAR SPEAR, DORIS B. Richter 1974–1980 1975 M.

Force Range Generally a particle has ﬁnite mass. What will happen if a force carrier particle has nonzero mass? To exert the force, it has to be emitted and absorbed by interacting objects. The ﬁnite mass of the force carrier if emitted produces energy uncertainty of at least Δ m c 2 . The Heisenberg uncertainty principle dictates that the time interval Δ t that allows energy violation should be less than „/ΔE . If the force carrier is not absorbed within this time interval, the force cannot be transmitted.

20) This means that an object with mass M exerts its force directly on another object with mass m at a distance r. Einstein considered such a “force at a distance” is unacceptable. To understand why, let’s carry out a thought experiment. Suppose the sun suddenly disappears at t D 0 and infer what would happen to the earth. According to Newton’s way of thinking, the sun’s attraction would disappear instantly, because the mass M, the source of the force, has disappeared and the earth would be thrown off its orbit into cosmic space at the same instant.