By R. Mildon (auth.), W. F. Raymond, P. Larvor (eds.)
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Additional info for Alternative Uses for Agricultural Surpluses
5% of the total output. The major users are the food industry (51%), and the paper and board industry (20%). Both the chemical and food industries are major users of hydrolysed starch (80-85% of the total starch) within each industry total (Table 1). 7 mte/y Food Total Native Modified Hydrolysed 1. 5%) (8%) Native starches derived from either maize, wheat, potato or rice differ in the physical characteristics, specifically granule size and this affects end use. g. dextrose, sorbitol, fructose syrup, levulose and mannitol.
Its alternatives are to use molasses, which can be imported without restraint, or 'A' quota sugar from which it can claim a chemical industry refund for the manufacture of certain products. 44 Against the background'described above of escalating EEC sugar prices it is not surprising that the amount of sugar used by the European chemical industry is declining. The point is well illustrated by the production costs for citric acid (Table 3). Table 3 Selling & Production Prices for Citric Acid Based on Molasses at £70/te, or Sugar from £100-350/te Selling price £960/te Production cost for a 10 000 te/y plant no Sugar Cost £100 £200 £350 Variable costs molasses sugar other services Fixed costs Return on capital Selling expenses Total cost 'Profit' 238 134 39 170 134 39 340 134 39 595 134 39 192 160 106 869 +91 192 160 106 801 +168 192 160 106 971 -11 192 160 106 1 226 -266 It is therefore not surprising to find that citric acid is no longer produced in this Community from sugar as such.
Oxydation Products • Conflict between Octane Rating and Volatility Demand Fig. 30. Effect of oxygenates on Fuel and Engine Criteria 35 Octane number 105 Premium - - i . - - - - t - RON f----+-r-----+~ __-r__RON ~_-+--MON ~_-MON 0,150,2 0,4 0,6 lead Content 9 Pb Fig. 31. Octane Quality/Lead content Premium Gasoline /92 98 ~- -RON / ...... - /' ETHANOL \ Unleaded / - - --- - = ~ 82 5 III 15 --~ 5 19 Alcohol Admix ture ( % ) Fig . 32. 2 ~ :0 ... • X • > (; ;;:: 5500 2000 rpm Blending Rate ( % ) 10 5 >< Z 0 til