An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control by Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN

By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)

Biological keep watch over is without doubt one of the such a lot promising tools for keep watch over of pests (including vectors), ailments and weeds. during this publication ecological and societal elements are for the 1st time taken care of jointly. In an ecological method the purpose is to guage the importance of definite organic homes like biodiversity and average habitats. additionally, you will need to see organic regulate from an natural (or ecological) farming standpoint. In a societal technique phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are regarded as major for organic creation and human welfare.

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Cambridge Univ. , 277-282. USDA 1991. Situation and outlook report: Fruit and tree nuts: Value of citrus and noncitrus products. USDA, Economic Research Service. USDA 2002. Oranges: the most consumed fruit in America. Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook/FTS-296/Jan. 31, 2002: 1214. van Lenteren, J. , Roskam, M. M. and Timmer, R. 1997. Commercial mass production and pricing of organisms for biological control of pests in Europe. Biological Control 10, 143-149. van Lenteren, J. , Hokkanen H. M. , et al. 2003.

S. and Fischer, T. W. (eds), Handbook of Biological Control. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, 713-742. Kurppa, S. 1990. Inset pest damage, predicting and control in Finnish cereal cultivation during the 1980s. PhDdissertation, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Finland, ISBN 951-729-37-6, 1-53. Langewald, J. and Neuenschwander, P. 2002. Challenges in coordinating regional biological control projects in Africa: classical biological control versus augmentative biological control.

But, in contrary to them, the organic farmers have a very limited range of approved products to control these problems. Thus, the approaches to pest management in organic apple orchards rely largely on preventative measures as direct, or reactive control methods are rare. Below, the concept of organic pest management in apple orchards is explained for some important pests and diseases, and the role of biocontrol is highlighted. Short term Long term Few synthetic substances in traps / dispensers Other veterinary drugs (if necessary) Plant-/ mineral based products Plant-/ mineral based products Biocontrol with microorganisms Biocontrol with microorganisms Biocontrol with predators & parasites Biocontrol with predators & parasites Prevention, fortification & conservation biocontrol Prevention, fortification & conservation biocontrol A) Organic crop protection B) Organic animal husbandry Figure 1: Integration of biological control into organic management strategies for crops (A) and animals (B).

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