By Wang Gungwu
Wang Gungwu's examine of the connection among China and the chinese language with imperial Britain examines the chances, in addition to the bounds in their encounters. past the clichГ©s of opium, battling, and the diplomatic abilities had to fend off competitors and enemies, Gungwu probes components of extra intimate encounters, now not least of that's the start of a broader English-speaking destiny among the 2 international locations.
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Extra resources for Anglo-Chinese Encounters since 1800: War, Trade, Science and Governance
Xml 42 CT003/Wang-Gungwu December 27, 2002 14:4 Anglo-Chinese Encounters could have evolved systematically in that direction had they not been so grounded by an orthodox agrarian worldview that was firmly rooted on land. The resource the Hokkiens offered was relatively untapped by the imperial authorities in the past, although their contribution to coastal defence had always been appreciated. 31 Here they have had more in common with the commercial traditions of the British. Perhaps in this realm, Anglo-Chinese relations might have been more fruitful.
Thus “to fight” in Anglo-Chinese relations took on new dimensions following the outbreak of the second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Before Pearl Harbor, support for China was still minimal, low-key and largely covert. Both the British and the Americans were sensitive to the dual threats of a fascist and militarist Japan allied to Germany on the one hand and Soviet international communism on the other. They saw that they could most help China by propping up the Nationalist forces that would resist both those enemies of Anglo-American interests and political culture.
The Chinese armies were weak and divided. The frustrations of the diplomats and the intellectuals and students who took to the streets could do little to change the situation. Nor could the Chinese trust other foreign powers to help them in their distress and humiliation. As Japan’s formal allies, the British certainly did nothing to assure the Chinese of sustained support. xml CT003/Wang-Gungwu To fight December 27, 2002 14:4 27 and soldiers. But it was all futile and the outcome was pathetic.