By Philip C. Kendall and Steven D. Hollon (Eds.)
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Extra info for Assessment Strategies for Cognitive–Behavioral Interventions
Cell 4. Paul takes his first exam in graduate school and fails. He strongly believes he is competent as a graduate student as a consequence of his advisor's encouraging compliments. He acquires situational information that all his fellow graduate students did very well on the exam in spite of the fact that he studied more hours than they did. Paul is in a cognitive dilemma (see text for ways in which Paul might resolve his cognitive dilemma). High Cell 3. Paul takes his first exam in graduate school and fails.
Of particular interest to the present discussion are those investigations which assessed individual differences in locus of control and the consequences of holding a particular locus. For example, investigators have isolated such correlates of locus of control as ability to acquire relevant information (Seeman, 1963; Seeman & Evans, 1962), conformity (Crowne & Liverant, 1963), risk-taking (Lefcourt, 1965; Liverant & Scodel, 1960), reaction to frustration (Butterfield, 1964), anxiety reduction in stressful situations (Auerbach, Kendall, Cutler, & Levitt, 1976), social dependency in naturally occurring interactions (Rajecki, Ickes, & Tanford, in press), reaction to assertiveness training (Schwartz & Higgins, 1979), and expectancy following success and failure in tasks of chance versus skill (James & Rotter, 1958; Phares, 1957).
Finally, after reviewing a number of studies in the locus of control area, Lefcourt (1965) concluded that people low in social power by class or race are more "external" than people high in social power. While a thorough review of work in the locus of control area is beyond the scope of this chapter (for such a review, see Lefcourt, 1965 and Rotter, 1966), the studies, taken together, suggest that people designated as external or internal in locus of control consistently attribute the environmental rewards they receive either to some external factor beyond their control or to some aspect of their own responding, respectively.