Attitudes and Changing Contexts by Robert van Rooij

By Robert van Rooij

In this e-book, the writer defends a unified externalists account of propositional attitudes and reference, and formalizes this view inside attainable international semantics. He establishes a hyperlink among philosophical analyses of intentionality and reference and formal semantic theories of discourse illustration and context swap. Stalnakerian diagonalization performs a massive position the following. Anaphora are taken care of as referential expressions, whereas presupposition is obvious as a propositional angle. The relation among trust swap and the semantic analyses of conditional sentences and evidential (knowledge) and buletic (desire) propositional attitudes is mentioned extensively.

"Van Rooij has new and engaging issues to assert either approximately foundational concerns within the philosophy of language, and in regards to the info of particular analyses, f.e. approximately intensional identification, epistemic modals, propositional angle attributions, presupposition lodging, conditionals and trust change." Robert Stalnaker, MIT

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He is disposed to utter or assent to London is not pretty. By the use of the disquotation principle it seems that we may conclude that the sentence Pierre believes that London is not pretty is true. On the assumption that Pierre does not give up his earlier belief expressed in French by Londres est jolie, it is hard to see how we can 16 17 If a normal English speaker, on reflection, sincerely assents to ‘p’, then he believes that p. If a sentence in one language expresses a truth in that language, then any translation of it into any other language also expresses a truth (in that language).

Not only should belief states be modelled by sets of possibilities, but so should all kinds of acceptance attitudes of an agent — in particular, for the propositional attitude of presupposition (Stalnaker, 1973, 1974), approximately the attitude of common belief (cf. Lewis, 1969). Just as beliefs and desires are functional states of rational agents, so too are presuppositions. All these attitude states are relevant to a theory of rationality, which is required to explain why certain behaviours of rational agents are appropriate when they are (Stalnaker, 1972).

This is clearly the case for indexicals; in different contexts it might be a different person who is speaking. In the same way, with a token analysis of diagonalisation, Kaplan’s paradox of direct reference can be explained. 9 Solving problems by diagonalisation 35 The problem is to explain how a very slow utterance of This [pointing to Venus in the morning sky] is identical with that [pointing to Venus in the evening sky] can be informative. This can be explained by saying that in some worlds consistent with what is presupposed in the conversation, the token of this will not refer to the same object as the token of that.

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